Structure, symbols and terminology | The Salvation Army

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Structure, symbols and terminology

The Salvation Army in New Zealand, Fiji, Tonga and Samoa is recognised for our uniforms and brass bands as much as our work in the community. Our distinct style can seem confusing at first, but it stems from a rich and diverse history, tracing back to The Salvation Army’s foundation in 19th Century London.


The administrative structure of The Salvation Army can best be described as being top-down and strongly hierarchical, based upon a military model. This military structure is a legacy of The Salvation Army’s beginnings in London in the mid-19th century.

All official positions with the exception of the General are appointed, however many non-Salvationists are also employed in various capacities.


The Salvation Army currently operates in over 130 countries, with its work administered by The Salvation Army International Headquarters (IHQ) in London, United Kingdom.

The international leader of The Salvation Army is the General, who works with the administrative departments of IHQ to direct Salvation Army operations around the world. These administrative departments are headed by International Secretaries.

The Chief of the Staff, a commissioner appointed by the General to be second-in-command, is the Army’s chief executive whose function is to implement the General’s policy decisions and effect liaison between departments.

As well as the handling of day-to-day business and the allocation of resources, IHQ is concerned with strategic, long-range planning and acts as a resource centre for the worldwide Army and as a facilitator of ideas and policies.

The Salvation Army worldwide is split into five zones (Africa, Europe, Americas, South Asia and East Asia), which are headed up by International (Zonal) Secretaries.


The next level in The Salvation Army hierarchy is the territory.

The Salvation Army began in New Zealand in 1883. In 1973 work began in Fiji, followed by Tonga in 1985. In 2018, The Salvation Army officially launched into Samoa and the territory's name was changed to The Salvation Army New Zealand, Fiji, Tonga and Samoa Territory.

The Territory is headed by the Territorial Commander, usually having the rank of Commissioner or Colonel, who reports directly to IHQ or in some cases, through a National Commander. The Territorial Commander is assisted by a Chief Secretary (normally a Colonel) and other departmental Secretaries who are responsible for overseeing the operation of The Salvation Army's activities throughout the Territory.

The local Sallies


The local Salvation Army church is called a corps, and Salvation Army church members are known as ‘soldiers’, while clergy are known as ‘officers’ who hold varying ranks.

Those holding positions of leadership within the corps are called ‘local officers’. Such positions include leadership of the band, songster brigade (choir), or other groups. Local officer positions are voluntary, unpaid, and are open to both men and women.

Salvation Army officers are full-time ministers of religion, trained and commissioned (ordained) by The Salvation Army. Their work involves all the usual duties of a minister, and can also include diverse roles in Salvation Army social service programmes or administration.

Officers have different ranks and wear uniform whenever they are ‘on duty’.

Community Ministries Centres

As well as corps, The Sallies run a range of Community Ministries centres, which provide aid and support to people in need within the community.



The Red Shield

The Red Shield is an internationally recognised symbol of Salvation Army service to those in need. Its origins trace back to the turn of the century when one of the symbols of The Salvation Army was a silver shield with the words ‘Salvation Army’ emblazoned across it. The shield was worn as a badge by many Salvation Army personnel, particularly those serving with the Defence Forces.

In the aftermath of the Boer War, an Australian Salvationist, Major George Carpenter, was concerned that the silver shield worn by Salvationists in times of war would reflect light, particularly during the night, giving the location of troops to the enemy. As a result, the silver was replaced by the red enamel and became known as the ‘Red Shield’. The pattern is the same internationally, with only the language being different.

Today, the Red Shield logo used on signage, printed materials and fundraising appeals has white lettering and border on a red background. In our territory, we have a 'Te Ope Whakaora' shield representing the Māori translation for The Salvation Army, which is translated as 'The Army that brings life'.

Because the Red Shield emblem came to represent The Salvation Army’s reputation for being at the frontline of need, the Red Shield was incorporated into the name of The Salvation Army’s annual fundraising drive in New Zealand, the Red Shield Appeal.

The crest

While less recognisable than the Red Shield, the crest is a meaningful symbol of Salvation Army beliefs. English Salvation Army Captain William Ebdon designed the crest in 1878 and the only alteration to his original design was the addition of the crown. Its emblems set forth the leading doctrines of The Salvation Army as follows:

The sun (the surround) represents the light and fire of the Holy Spirit

The cross of Jesus stands at the centre of the crest and the Salvationist’s faith

The ‘S’ stands for Salvation from sin

The swords represent the fight against sin

The shots (seven dots on the circle) stand for the truths of the gospel

The crown speaks of God’s reward for His faithful people

“Blood and Fire” is the motto of The Salvation Army. This describes the blood of Jesus shed on the cross to save all people and the fire of the Holy Spirit which purifies believers.

The flag

Around the world, The Salvation Army flag is a symbol of the Army’s war against sin and social evil.

The red of the flag represents the blood of Christ, the blue border stands for purity, and the yellow star in the centre signifies the fire of the Holy Spirit.

The flag is used at special occasions such as marriages, funerals, marches, open-air meetings, enrolments of soldiers, farewells, and retirements.

The first Salvation Army flag was designed and presented to the Coventry Corps in England by Catherine Booth in 1878. At the time the centre of the flag was a yellow sun representing the Light of Life. This was changed to the star in 1882.


The Salvation Army uniform reflects the military model upon which the Army is organised. Internally it provides a sense of identity and belonging. Externally it is a widely recognised symbol of availability and service, so we've easily identified the world over.

As with many of our symbols, the uniform has its origins in 19th Century London. The first Captain of The Salvation Army, a former chimney sweep named Elijah Cadman, instigated the wearing of the military-style uniforms.

The original uniform was modelled on Victorian military garb but has evolved over the years. From frock coats, tall hats and black ties for men and plain dresses and small Quaker-style bonnets for women, to the military-type uniform worn today, the uniform has adapted to fit the culture in which it finds itself.

In New Zealand, bonnets for women were replaced by felt hats and the high military-style collars were dropped for both men and women. Today, most Salvationists don’t wear hats and many people often wear a casual uniform. There is variation in uniform internationally because of climate and other circumstances.

Brass bands

The Salvation Army today is renowned worldwide for its brass bands and choirs, but the introduction of bands to The Army happened almost by chance.

The first Salvation Army band was launched in Salisbury, England, in 1878 and was made up of Charles Fry, a local builder and leader of the Methodist orchestra, and his three sons. Salvation Army evangelists in Salisbury were having trouble with local hooligans, so Fry and his sons offered to act as bodyguards while the Salvationists sang in the marketplace.

As an afterthought, the Frys brought their instruments to accompany the singing. In this unwitting fashion, the first Salvation Army band was born. Their immediate success led the Fry family to sell their business and become full-time musicians with the Army. Within the next few years, brass bands sprang up all over the country, leading to their prominent place in The Salvation Army of today.

The drum

To Salvationists, the drum has always been more than a musical instrument. From the first, the drum’s supreme function was as a ‘mercy seat’ in open-air meetings. Thousands of people have knelt at the drum and claimed Salvation from their sins.

When the Army drum made its first appearance, some people said its use in religious meetings was nothing less than sacrilege, but William Booth claimed it was just as proper to “beat” the people into a Salvation meeting as to “ring” them into church.

Of course, the drum is also very much a part of The Salvation Army musical tradition, playing as it does with the brass band.


Many common Salvation Army terms come from its military structure and heritage. Some of the most common are defined below. 

Adherent: A person who regards The Salvation Army as their spiritual home but has not chosen to make the commitment of 'soldiership' in The Salvation Army

Articles of War (Soldier’s Covenant): The statement of beliefs and promises which every intending soldier is required to sign before enrolment

“Blood & Fire”: The Salvation Army’s motto, referring to the symbolism of the sacrificial blood of Jesus Christ and the purifying, illuminating fire of the Holy Spirit

Cadet: A Salvationist undertaking theological and practical training for officership

Candidate: A soldier who has been accepted to enter training as an officer

Chief of the Staff: The leader second in command of The Salvation Army worldwide. The Chief of the Staff is appointed by the General

Citadel: The property or church building where Salvationists meet for worship. Other terms used are 'fortress' and 'temple'

Colonel: A rank appointed to Salvation Army officers on merit by the General

Command: A smaller type of Salvation Army Territory directed by a designated 'Officer Commanding'

Commissioner: The highest rank of a Salvation Army officer except for General, appointed on merit by the General. Most Territorial Commanders are Commissioner in rank

Congress: Central gatherings held in divisions, regions, territories or internationally, attended by officers and their fellow Salvationists

Corps (pronounced ‘core’): A Salvation Army church, similar in concept to that of a parish, sometimes comprising several congregations

Corps Cadet: A young Salvationist who undertakes a course of Bible study, Salvation Army doctrine and history, and practical training in their corps

Corps Officer: A Salvation Army officer who is appointed a leader of a Corps

Corps Sergeant Major (CSM): Similar to the chief 'elder' or lay leader in other Christian denominations, the CSM is the chief local officer for public work who assists the corps officer with meetings (worship services) and usually takes command and responsibility in the corps officer’s absence

Dedication Service: The Salvation Army's equivalent to a christening service, it consists of a public presentation of infants to God. It differs from christening or infant baptism in that the main emphasis is upon specific vows made by the parent/s concerning the child's upbringing

Disposition of Forces (‘dispo’): A directory of contact details used within The Salvation Army mainly for Army officers, programs and centres

Division: A grouping of districts, similar to a diocese in the Anglican Church. Territories are divided into Divisions, each of which has a number of Corps and social centres which are mostly run by officers

Divisional Commander (DC): The leader of a Salvation Army division

Divisional Headquarters (DHQ): The administrative headquarters of a division

Farewell Orders: The transfer of officers to new appointments

Furlough: Holidays for officers

General: The General is the officer elected (by the High Council) to lead The Salvation Army worldwide, and is based at International Headquarters in London. All appointments are made, and all regulations issued, under the General's authority

High Council: A group called together on a needs-basis, the High Council elects the General in accordance with The Salvation Army Act 1980.The High Council comprises the Chief of the Staff, all active (as opposed to retired) commissioners except the spouse of the General, and all territorial commanders

Holiness Table: see Mercy Seat

International Headquarters (IHQ): The General directs Salvation Army operations throughout the world through the administrative departments of International Headquarters (IHQ) in London, which are headed by International Secretaries

International Secretary: An officer appointed by the General to supervise administrative departments at International Headquarters representing various parts of Salvation Army work worldwide

Junior Soldier: A child who, having come to faith in Christ and signed the Junior Soldier's Promise, is enrolled as a Salvationist

League of Mercy: League of Mercy commenced in 1892 to respond to spiritual and social needs through visitation in the local community

Lieutenant-Colonel: This is a rank appointed to Salvation Army officers on merit by the General

Local Officer: A soldier appointed to a position of responsibility and authority in the corps, who carries out the duties of the appointment without being separated from his/her regular employment/lifestyle and without receiving remuneration from The Salvation Army

Major: The rank of a Salvation Army officer who has completed further studies and 15 years service

Meeting: Church service

Mercy Seat (penitent form, holiness table): A bench or table provided as a place where people can kneel to pray, seeking salvation or sanctification, or making a special consecration of their life to God's will and service

Officer: Ordained Salvation Army clergy, who wear uniforms with red epaulettes indicating their rank

Orders and Regulations for The Salvation Army: Effectively a 'Code of Conduct' for all Salvation Army soldiers and officers.

Order of the Founder (The): An order of merit marking meritorious Christian example and witness, and distinguished or memorable service

Order of the Silver Star (The): An order expressing gratitude to parents of commissioned officers in The Salvation Army

Outpost: A locality in which Army work is carried on and where it is hoped a society or corps will develop

Penitent form: see Mercy Seat

Promotion to Glory: The Army's description of the death of a Salvationist, with 'glory' symbolising life after death in God's presence

Quarters: The house provided for Salvation Army officers, their spouses and their families

Ranks: Officers in The Salvation Army have different ranks. These include Cadet, Captain, Major, Lieut-Colonel, Colonel and Commissioner

Red Shield: A widely recognised Salvation Army symbol of caring service for those in need

Red Shield Appeal: An annual financial appeal to the general public to help fund The Salvation Army's extensive social programme

Salvation: The work of grace which God accomplishes in a repentant person whose trust is in Jesus Christ. The deeper experience of this grace, known as holiness or sanctification, is the outcome of wholehearted commitment to God. Read more in Our Faith

Salvationist: Member of The Salvation Army, whether an officer, soldier, adherent or friend

Secretary: Departmental head

Soldier: A Christian person who has, with the approval of their corps' senior pastoral care council, been enrolled as a member of The Salvation Army after undertaking soldiership classes and signing the Articles of War (Soldier's Covenant). 

Songster Bridgade: Salvation Army choir

Swearing-in: The public enrolment of Salvation Army soldiers

Timbrel: Musical instrument, similar to a tambourine, often used in Salvation Army worship

Territory: For administrative purposes, The Salvation Army internationally is divided into world Territories. Usually, each country forms a single Salvation Army Territory, but somewhere the Army is numerically strong are divided into two or more

Territorial Commander (TC): The leader of a Salvation Army Territory

Territorial Headquarters (THQ): The administrative headquarters for a Territory

War CryThe Salvation Army's official flagship journal, many issues of which are published in many countries. The War Cry was first published in England in 1879

Young People’s Sergeant Major (YPSM): A local officer responsible for the young people's work, under the commanding officer